ISSG(国際シリア支援グループ)外相がミュンヘンで会合を開き、ロシア軍、シリア軍、YPG主体のシリア民主軍が交戦するヌスラ戦線やダーイシュ(イスラーム国)を排除したかたちで「1週間」以内に停戦をめざすことで合意(2016年2月11日)

第52回ミュンヘン国際安全保障会議に出席するためにドイツのミュンヘンを訪れているISSG(国際シリア支援グループ)諸国外相が、同会議に先立って会合を持ち、シリア紛争の政治的解決への方途やダーイシュ(イスラーム国)への対応を探るために意見を交わした。

米国務省のHPで公開された共同声明によると、会合に参加したのは、アラブ連盟、中国、エジプト、EU、フランス、ドイツ、イラン、イラク、イタリア、ヨルダン、レバノン、イスラーム協力機構、オマーン、カタール、ロシア、サウジアラビア、トルコ、UAE、英国、国連、米国。

12日深夜まで続いた会合では、参加国は、今週中にシリア軍、ダーイシュ(イスラーム国)、反体制派が包囲する地域への人道支援を開始するとともに、ISSGの作業チームが1週間以内に全国レベルでの停戦に向けた手順を確定することを合意した。

また、国連安保理決議第2254号に基づき、シリア人どうしの対話を通じた政治移行プロセス、武力行使の停止と全国規模での停戦、包囲されている地域への人道支援の促進、逮捕者の釈放、そして「テロとの戦い」を推し進めることを全会一致で確認した。

人道支援に関しては、国連安保理家決議第2254号第12項に従い、ダーイシュの包囲下にあるダイル・ザウル市、アル=カーイダ系組織と「穏健な反体制派」の連合組織ファトフ軍の包囲下にあるイドリブ県のフーア市およびカファルヤー町、そして、シリア軍、ヒズブッラー戦闘員が包囲するダマスカス郊外県のマダーヤー町、ムウダミーヤト・シャーム市、カフルバトナー町に今週中に物資の搬入を行うこと、そしてそのために国連とともに各当事者に対して働きかけることが確認された。

全国規模の停戦に関しては、ダーイシュ、シャームの民のヌスラ戦線、そして国連安保理において「テロ組織」と認定されているその他の組織を除く当事者の戦闘停止に向けて、影響力を行使することが合意された。

また停戦に向けて、国連の後援のもと、ロシアと米国を議長とする作業チームを設置し、シリア政府、反体制派と協議したうえで、1週間以内に停戦を開始するとともに、作業チームはシリア政府、反体制派との協議期間中に停戦に向けた手順を確定する。

政治移行プロセスに関して、すべての当事者に国連の後援のもとに交渉を行うよう働きかけ、国連安保理決議第2254号が定めた行程に沿って、移行プロセスを推進する。

なお、ロシア軍の航空支援のもとでアレッポ県北部で激化しているシリア軍と反体制派、西クルディスタン移行期民政局人民防衛隊主体のシリア民主軍と反体制派の戦闘、ラタキア県、イドリブ県、ハマー県、ダマスカス郊外県でのシリア軍と反体制派の戦闘は、反体制派が、ヌスラ戦線、シャーム自由人イスラーム運動、ジュンド・アクサー機構といったアル=カーイダ系組織、シリア・ムスリム同胞団系のシャーム軍団やサウジアラビアの後援を受けるイスラーム軍、そしてシャーム戦線、第1沿岸師団、第2沿岸師団など「穏健な反体制派」の混成部隊であるため、「1週間以内の停戦」の対象となるか否かは各国の解釈によって異なる。

従って、この共同声明における合意は、シリア国内での戦闘停止という点においては何らの実質的な意味は持たない。

共同声明の英語全文は以下の通り:

Meeting in Munich on February 11 & 12, 2016, as the International Syria Support Group (ISSG), the Arab League, China, Egypt, the EU, France, Germany, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Jordan, Lebanon, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Oman, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United Nations, and the United States decided that humanitarian access will commence this week to besieged areas, and an ISSG task force will within one week elaborate modalities for a nationwide cessation of hostilities.

The ISSG members unanimously committed to immediately facilitate the full implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution 2254, adopted unanimously December 18, 2015. The ISSG reaffirmed their readiness to carry out all commitments set forth in the resolution, including to: ensure a Syrian-led and Syrian-owned political transition based on the Geneva Communiqué in its entirety; press for the end of any indiscriminate use of weapons; support and accelerate the agreement and implementation of a nationwide ceasefire; facilitate immediate humanitarian access to besieged and hard-to-reach areas and the release of any arbitrarily detained persons; and fight terrorism.

Ensuring Humanitarian Access

In order to accelerate the urgent delivery of humanitarian aid, sustained delivery of assistance shall begin this week by air to Deir Ez Zour and simultaneously to Fouah, Kafrayah, the besieged areas of Rural Damascus, Madaya, Mouadhimiyeh, and Kafr Batna by land, and continue as long as humanitarian needs persist. Humanitarian access to these most urgent areas will be a first step toward full, sustained, and unimpeded access throughout the country.

The members of the ISSG will use their influence with all parties on the ground to work together, in coordination with the United Nations, to ensure that all parties allow immediate and sustained humanitarian access to reach all people in need, throughout Syria, particularly in all besieged and hard-to-reach areas, as called for in UNSCR 2254. To this end, the UN will submit a plan to an ISSG humanitarian task force, which shall convene on February 12 and next week. This group will comprise the ISSG co-chairs, relevant UN entities and members of the ISSG with influence on the parties in a position to ensure humanitarian access.

The ISSG reaffirmed that humanitarian access should not benefit any particular group over any other, but shall be granted by all sides to all people in need, in full compliance with UNSCR 2254 and international humanitarian law. The ISSG asks the UN to report weekly, on behalf of the task force, on progress on the implementation of the plan referenced above, so that in any cases where access lags or approvals are lacking, relevant ISSG members will use their influence to press the requested party/parties to provide that approval. There will be a process for resolving any problems so that relief can flow expeditiously. Any questions about access or delivery will be resolved through the task force.

All ISSG members commit to immediately work together with the Syrian parties to ensure no delay in the granting of approval and completion of all pending UN requests for access in accordance with UNSCR 2254, paragraph 12.

ISSG co-chairs and members will ensure that aid convoys are used solely for humanitarian purposes. International humanitarian organizations, in particular the United Nations, will play the central role, as they engage the Syrian government, the opposition and local populations, in arranging the monitoring and sustained and uninterrupted distribution of aid.

Achieving a Nationwide Cessation of Hostilities

The ISSG members agreed that a nationwide cessation of hostilities must be urgently implemented, and should apply to any party currently engaged in military or paramilitary hostilities against any other parties other than Daesh, Jabhat al-Nusra, or other groups designated as terrorist organizations by the United Nations Security Council. The ISSG members commit to exercise influence for an immediate and significant reduction in violence leading to the nationwide cessation of hostilities.

The ISSG members decided to take immediate steps to secure the full support of all parties to the conflict for a cessation of hostilities, and in furtherance of that have established an ISSG ceasefire task force, under the auspices of the UN, co-chaired by Russia and the United States, and including political and military officials, with the participation of ISSG members with influence on the armed opposition groups or forces fighting in support of the Syrian government. The UN shall serve as the secretariat of the ceasefire task force. The cessation of hostilities will commence in one week, after confirmation by the Syrian government and opposition, following appropriate consultations in Syria. During that week, the ISSG task force will develop modalities for the cessation of hostilities.

The ISSG task force will, among other responsibilities continue to: a) delineate the territory held by Daesh, ANF and other groups designated as terrorist organizations by the United Nations Security Council; b) ensure effective communications among all parties to promote compliance and rapidly de-escalate tensions; c) resolve allegations of non-compliance; and d) refer persistent non-compliant behavior by any of the parties to ISSG Ministers, or those designated by the Ministers, to determine appropriate action, including the exclusion of such parties from the arrangements for the cessation of hostilities and the protection it affords them. Although a cessation of hostilities can facilitate humanitarian access, it cannot be a precondition for such access anywhere in Syria.

The ISSG decided that all members will undertake their best efforts, in good faith, to sustain the cessation of hostilities and delivery of humanitarian assistance, and take measures to stop any activities prohibited by United Nations Security Council Resolutions 2170, 2178, 2199, 2249, 2253, and 2254. The ISSG again expressed concern for the plight of refugees and internally displaced persons and the imperative of building conditions for their safe return in accordance with the norms of international humanitarian law and taking into account the interests of host countries.

Advancing a Political Transition

The members of the ISSG reaffirmed the imperative of all sides engaging in negotiations under the auspices of the United Nations as soon as possible, in strict compliance with United Nations Security Council 2254. They reaffirmed that it is for the Syrian people to decide the future of Syria. The members of the ISSG pledge to do all they can to facilitate rapid progress in these negotiations, including the reaching of agreement within six months on a political transition plan that establishes credible, inclusive and non-sectarian governance and sets a schedule and process for drafting a new constitution, free and fair elections, pursuant to the new constitution, to be held within 18 months and administered under supervision of the United Nations, to the satisfaction of the governance and to the highest international standards of transparency and accountability, with all Syrians, including members of the diaspora, eligible to participate.

Full implementation of these objectives will require the ISSG co-chairs and members, the UN and others, to work closely on political, humanitarian, and military dimensions.

AFP, February 11, 2016、AP, February 11, 2016、ARA News, February 11, 2016、Champress, February 11, 2016、al-Hayat, February 12, 2016、Iraqi News, February 11, 2016、Kull-na Shuraka’, February 11, 2016、al-Mada Press, February 11, 2016、Naharnet, February 11, 2016、NNA, February 11, 2016、Reuters, February 11, 2016、SANA, February 11, 2016、UPI, February 11, 2016などをもとに作成。

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カテゴリー: シリア政府の動き, 反体制勢力の動き, 国内の暴力, 諸外国の動き パーマリンク